One can certainly perform magic at all of the places you mentioned, but the number of people who can successfully make a real "concrete, magic career" out of it is very low. I think there is no defined, standard career path for a professional full-time magician.
Nor are there really any schools to go to in order to get a magic degree. Though there are conferences and short workshops one can attend (e.g., McBride's Magic & Mystery School). And one can certainly network at local rings and at meetings of national magic organizations.
My advice would be to get the college / university degree in some area that he / she finds interesting and is yet practical and employable ... use the time at college to develop your magic skills and start doing / developing shows ... and see what happens. Many professional magicians have two careers ... one doing a regular job 9-5 (e.g., law, accounting) and another in the evenings / weekends doing magic. Use the former to support the latter at the start and, if the latter takes off, turn to it full-time.
But what I described is sort of a sensible conservative approach. If one is a real risk taker, he / she can take a year or two after college / university and devote themselves to full-time magic. If they succeed and can continue doing this, great. If not ... well, then they may be sort of pooched if they are no longer employable (because they no longer look attractive compared to the new college / university graduates) in the other career they went to college for.
Now, I actually do know a couple of people (one in particular who is becoming quite famous) who made a go of magic from early on. They went to college / university, but they've only ever worked in magic since they were adults. No one is more surprised than I am that they succeeded, because I really thought the odds were against it. So it can be done. But I think they are the exception, and not the rule.